Mapping Strategies: Final Project Proposal

INSPIRATION

Robert Shattuck, on Proust:

“Relativity tells us that no object by itself has either definable or measurable velocity. Two objects are required to yield a relative reading, and there is no universal grid like the ether to give an absolute figure. An object can be described as located somewhere and in a certain motion only in reference to what is about it. And so it is also with memories and experiences.

to see is to see against or beside something else

everything is perceived in clusters, each framed by another

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SIREN

  • performance piece by Ray Lee initially performed in 2007
  • installation of large sound sculptures
    • metal tripods
    • rotating arms that emit electronic drones
  • “create a hypnotic composition”
    • audio visual spectacle / live experience
    • Wherever you stand in the space it sounds different.
    • As the arms rotate, the sound pulses past the listener with a Doppler-like effect
    • minimalist phasing of the rhythmic pulses
    • a constantly evolving polyrhythmic structure.
    • series of overtones that evoke the sense of an ethereal choir

 

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BUDDHA MACHINE

by FM3 in 2005

  • generative music maker
    • layering loops of ambient sound
    • named: popular Chinese device that intones repeating loops of Buddhist chanting
  • size of a pack of cigarettes
    • >3 editions exist now, with different loop settings
  • described as “poetic noise,” & “confrontationally tranquil,” & “engagingly intimate.”
  • “… a transistor radio sized device that plays endlessly changing sounds, chosen by the program, from a given set of notes and sounds. There is, as one would expect, no arc to these compositions—no beginning, middle and/or end. They are merely states of being, not substitutes for narrative. These indeterminate scores can be viewed a bit like the literature that emerges out of oral traditions—the great epics and sagas.” – David Byrne

 

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LUIGI RUSSOLO’S  THE ART OF NOISE

  • Futurist manifesto published in 1913
  • Sound is defined as the result of a succession of regular and periodic vibrations.
  • Noise is instead caused by motions that are irregular, as much in time as in intensity.
  • “Every manifestation of life is accompanied by noise. Noise is therefore familiar to our ears and has the power of immediately reminding us of life itself.” – Luigi Russolo

PROPOSAL

“meditative memory map”

  • Record dynamic noises (as defined by Russolo)
  • Focus on how things are framed in relation to each other
    • Inter-aural Level Differences
    • Inter-aural Intensity Differences
    • Start/Stop
  • Generative music dictated by patterns
    • transform sonic clutter into a meditative map
    • the tracks of mediative music buffer the clamorous sonic nature of live perceiving. A memory is softened and fluid compared the urban cacophony of transit systems.

CONCEPT MAPPING

How does sound and memory relate?
How does generative music relate to memory?
How could memory rehearsal and recall be translated into algorithms and rules for music?

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While an innovative idea, generative programs are still very demanding of programmers and musicians. A specific instance of such a piece of music was then proposed.

Acoustic Scene Analysis was the subject of Memory Tests as shows the diagram below:

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A proposed interface that links waveform, actual audio, temporal-shifted audio, and spatial location:g.png

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A final sketch of the score of temporal-shifted audio:

odonnel_Acoustic_Memory 14.png


<p><a href=”https://vimeo.com/153959298″>SUBJECT 6 – 3D 2HR 32M AGO</a> from <a href=”https://vimeo.com/user45445065″>Patrick J. O'Donnel</a> on <a href=”https://vimeo.com”>Vimeo</a&gt;.</p>

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Design History: Economic Trends

Ticker Tape

  • Stock Ticker
    • invented by Edward Calahan in 1860s
    • used Morse code, evolved from telegraph technology
    • makes “ticking” noise as it works
  • Edison’s Telegraph Printer
    • 1867
    • printed alphanumeric numbers, readable text
    • by 1880s, ~1000 stock tickers installed in offices of New York bankers
  • 1970s
    • stock price boards, then magnetic tape and computer terminals

  • other uses for ticker tape
    • sports scores from umpire, to announcer box, to man updating scoreboard manually
    • crop trading and selling

Bloomberg Terminal

  • 325,000 subscribers for 60 billion pieces of info from the market a day
    • accurate color scheme, concise and useful charts, clear labeling
    • less white space for more information
  • Precursors:
    • Quotron, 1960: electronic stock market prices vs. ticker tape, no transactional system or analysis
  • Blooberg revolutionized data analysis:
    • helpful shortcuts for keyboard when users were computer novices
    • chat feature that keeps no record of conversations
    • hired a separate research team to crunch the numbers and deliver analysis
    • speed of information updating shocked traders
  • Open source software are making data more accessible
    • newest challenger Symphony
    • main feature challengers don’t have: private chat in enclosed network

Pujo “Money Trust” Report

  • 1912 special Senate subcommittee headed by Head of House Banking and Currency Committee, Arsene P. Pujo
    • thought a small “money trust” was controlling nation’s finances
    • concluded groups of financial backers were abusing power
  • First major presentation of interlocking directorates controlling flow of money
    • precise relationship of size of banks (size of circle)
    • used a metaphor of an octopus or spider web

WILLIAM PLAYFAIR

  • Bar Chart: Exports and Imports of Scotland

    • used to show data from one year by country because of a lack of historical data precedent
  • Pie Chart: Statistical Breviary

    • shows extent of population of revenues of Europe’s principle nations
  • Line Chart: Exports and Imports of Denmark and Norway

OTTO NEURATH & the ICON

  • Isotype
    • clear, scientific expression of pictorial language
    • international system of typographic picture education

  • Xilography
    • wood carving of the negative and coating with ink
  • Munich Olympics 1972
    • in similar style
  • Graphic Symbols
    • helpful for international communication; navigation of foreign land
    • iconography is a scientific process of sociological and psychological commonalities that bonds all beings.
  • Tenets of Design
    • A: Serialization — placing many icons next to each other to show the extent of the whole
    • B. Iconicity — simplicity is abstraction
    • C: Clarity — must be read from a distance, gestalt must read
    • D: Consistency — same symbols at same size allow comparison
    • E: Color — limited color, color shows difference in category

Design History: Timelines

Strom der Zeiten (1804)

  • Fredrich Strass, German
  • “Rivers of Time”
  • metaphor of “liquidity” of time
  • Creation at top, but does not start with Biblical time
  • Asian empires on the right, uninterrupted
  • Roman Empire, takes up much of the middle of the graph
  • English translation used much bolder colors, but gained more popularity

Synchronological Chart of History

  • Sebastian C. Adams, 1871
    • influential educator
  • 23 ft long
  • commercial illustrations
  • first titled “Chronological Chart of Ancient, Modern, and Biblical History”
  • chromolithography = affordable for middle class at the time
  • time calculated based on Christian Church’s estimate of event of Creation
  • Streams represent Nations/Countries; width represents power of nation

Ladder of Divine, Catholic Ladder

  • late 12th century icon at St. Catherine’s Monastery (now in Egypt)
  • based on the theological teachings of John Climacus, John of the Ladder
  • metaphor of ladder connecting Earth to the Heavens
  • Catholic Ladder
    • Francois Norbert Blanchet and Modest Demers, 1840
    • pictogram system to teach Christian history and beliefs to mixture of Native American cultures
    • combination of ladder metaphor in Christianity, and Native American tradition of time representation on a stick
    • read bottom to top (like ascension)
    • protestant divide represented as withering branch
  • Protestant Ladder
    • Henry and Eliza Spalding 1845 in reaction
    • controversial and reactionary
    • Pope pictured as falling to Hell; Protestants rising to heaven
    • dual streams of time
    • drawing in the style of 18th/19th century European art

Jacques Bertin

  • Matrix theory of graphics; Semiology of Graphics
  • Cartographer
  • How do you encode data into maps?; developed seven variables of visual language
  • Point, Line, Area differentiation for Visual Variable
    • X/Y position
    • Size
    • Value (shade/intensity)
    • Grain (stripe/patterned fill)
    • Color
    • Orientation
    • Form/Shape

Herbert Bayer & the World Geographic Atlas

  • 1925: Bauhaus and universal type, no capitals, clean geometry
  • 1953: World Geographic Atlas
    • wide-use of symbols allows information to be understood by illiterates

Design History: Joseph Priestley

A New Chart of History + Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley and the Graphic Invention of Modern Time
Studies in Eighteenth Century Culture 36.1 (2007) 55-103
D. Rosenberg

Cartographies of Time (2007)
D. Rosenberg & A. Grafton

  • River of Time
    • “He who postpones the hour of living as he ought, is like the rustic who waits for the river to pass along (before he crosses); but it glides on and will glide forever.” —Horace, Epistles (I.2.41), quoted in Priestley, Description of a Chart of Biography, 24:476.
  • Introduction
    • “[Timelines]—straight and curved, branching and crossing, simple and embellished, technical and artistic—[are] the basic components of historical diagrams. […] the line is a much more complex and colorful figure than is usually thought. We all use simple line diagrams in our classrooms—what we usually call timelines—to great effect. They are such a familiar part of our mental furniture that it is sometimes hard to remember that we ever acquired them in the first place.”
    • Few examples of critical work classified as time maps are discussed in the numerous publications of history and cartography.
    • Rosenberg and Grafton suggest the ubiquitous nature of lines and history education is not without merit; it is easily understandable. Historically, this has not always been the case.
    • Chronologies are often dismissed as rudimentary by historians. For most, to qualify as historiography the considered must deal in real events, and it is not enough to represent events in chronological framework that they originally occurred, the events must revealed to possess a structure.
    • Why is the timeline an apt visual analogy? Numbers are organized and defined by the line. Our whole perception of temporality is based on linear sequencing.
    • While our modern understanding of timelines (with one axis and regular distribution of dates) is only 250 years old, the analogy has been evolving since written culture’s beginning. Technical innovations in printing and plotting at the end of the 17th century permitted the visual analogy of the timeline to met with precision under the lens of the scientific eye.
    • Innovators in the late 17th century and early 18th century began to tackle how to represent how create more complex visual schemes to aid in the presentation of the most complex ideas. However, the scholars began to develop ways to simplify and create a visual scheme that clearly communicated the uniformity, directionality and irreversibility of time.
  • Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley (1733 – 1804)
    • English scientist and theologian, usually associated with the first instance of chemical isolation of oxygen, and the invention of soda water.
    • His belief in the study of history celebrates world’s successes as well as a tool for the future generations to anticipate practical needs. The study of history is a narration of God’s natural laws, and by understanding how His higher power has previously worked brings human enlightenment closer to a comprehension of God Himself.
  • Before Joseph Priestley
    • grid, matricy of words
    • non-regularly spaced dates
    • time malleable and expands/contracts depending on rhythms of generations and importance/documentation of events.
    • grid
    • nations are named horizontally, dates descended vertically
    • single-plane allows dates to be given and shown
    • sizes of nations are inconsistent, Romanocentric
    • non-uniformity characteristic of an engraver; single-page, all-at-once-view of a chart was his biggest contribution. Priestley improved upon this with systematic principles of a scientific illustration

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    • English Minister and teacher, Francis Tallents

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    • English Cartographer Thomas Jeffreys, 1753
  • 1765 Chart of Biography

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    • represented the birth and death of historical figures, despite merit, categorized by accomplishment spectra.
    • date/time measures on top and bottom showing horizontal lines as spans of time famous historical figures had lived.
    • few “new” techniques or ideas, yet it was the most strikingly simple diagram produced to this date.
    • the first time way with a fully developed visual vocabulary; first alternative to a traditional data matrix
    • the timeline was “a most excellent mechanical help to the knowledge of history” and now an image of history itself. History, at that time and in Priestley’s opinion, moves forwards and backwards to make comparisons and contrasts, and allows for branches to follow plots and subplots.

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  • 1769 New Chart of History

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    • represents geographical world in terms of who ruled/reigned and when
    • attempted to reconcile the ideas of time and place
    • country region: horizontal space
      time frame: vertical space
      area: ruler/reigning power
  • Design Techniques
    • More than three-feet wide and two-feet tall
    • Chart of History: accurately register the lives and deaths of two thousand famous men on a scale of three thousand years in “universal time”; the fates of seventy-eight principal kingdoms during the same period.
    • The two charts were available as posters to be framed or as scrolls wound up on rollers. Designed for the curiosity and pleasure of a general reader, they were also meant to serve the scholar.
    • “If history were rendered in natural proportion, chronological absurdities would quickly come to light.” —Joseph Priestley
    • Dates are measured on both the top and bottom of the charts
    • Each 100 years is marked on the Chart of History, with dots in between to measure decades
    • Vertical lines connect axis labels to promote visual equivalency
    • Priestley hoped that, by maintaining one scale for the two works, he would make it easy to use them together. Though the two could not literally be superimposed, they could be placed side by side for comparison, and as Priestley notes, readers might very easily inscribe one chart with helpful marks from the other
    • Chart of Biography: horizontal lines to separate biography classifications (Historians, Antiquaries; Orators and Critics; Artists and Poets; Mathematicians and Physicians; Divines and Metaphysicians; etc.)
    • Chart of Biography: Short or long ellipsis (…) to show uncertainty of birth or death at end/beginning of line. More ellipsis, more time of uncertainty.
    • Labels vs. textual information: Though Priestley says that names must be written on the chart, and indeed he places them there, he specifies that their function is merely indexical. The chart functions fully as a graphical representation of history without a single name being mentioned. In Priestley’s words, “it is the black line under each name which is to be attended to: the names are only added because there was no other method of signifying what lives the lines stand for.”
    • Color: He makes only one significant concession to the limitations of the simple linear graphic. He added color to the Chart of History, an innovation which allowed him to exhibit the unity of empires that “cannot be represented by continuous spaces.”
    • Scale for Scope
    • Consistency in measurement
    • Visual Coding
  • Priestley on Reading His Chart of Biography
    • “the noblest prospect . . . is suggested by a view of the crowds of names in the divisions appropriated to the arts and sciences in the last two centuries. Here all the classes of renown, and, I may add, of merit, are full and a hundred times as many might have been admitted, of equal attainments in knowledge with their predecessors. This prospect gives us a kind of security for the continual propagation and extension of knowledge; and that for the future, no more great chasms of men really eminent for knowledge, will ever disfigure that part of the chart of their lives which I cannot draw, or ever see drawn”
    • For Priestley, the essence of the chart was to give a broad view.
    • the way the lines bunch up on the right side shows the rapid acceleration of progress.
    • From a distance, to use his own analogy, the lines on the Chart of Biography should look like “so many small straws swimming on the surface of [an] immense river.” In some eras, these flow smoothly from left to right as in even water. In others, they bunch up or separate as the currents of history change speed.
    • The chart is densest with biographical lines at the farthest right edge, that is to say, in the most recent historical period. This is no accident of historical record.
    • In other words, in Priestley’s view, the mass of straws accumulating at the right of the chart represents an actual historical phenomenon, the “acceleration” of the arts and sciences in his own time. And, indeed, on his chart, something called science literally takes on a figure, perhaps for the first time.
  • Priestley on Reading His New Chart of History
    • “If the reader carry his eye vertically, he will see contemporary state of all the empires submitting in the world, at any particular time. He may observe which were then rising, which were flourishing, and which were upon the decline. Casting his eye a little to each side of the vertical line, he will see what empires had lately gone off the stage and which were about to come on.”
    • the whole of history is before you, a medium that is possible less partial than the actual experience.
    • “They are rather melancholy reflections, which the view of such a chart of history as this is apt to excite in the minds of persons of feeling and humanity. What a number of revolutions are marked upon it! What a broken appearance, in particular, do the finest and most cultivated parts of the earth exhibit, as Greece, Italy, Persia, and Egypt! What torrents of human blood has the restless ambition of mortals shed, and in what complicated distress has the discontent of powerful individuals involved a great part of their species!”
    • here the graphic analogy of the line points to human violence and turmoil, blood shed.
  • Summary
    • he believed that history had a direction.
    • the mechanism that he developed for representing chronologies in graphic form achieved its popularity in part because it lent itself so well to the figuration of progress.
    • But for Priestley, the timeline was something else: it was a mechanism for breaking open historical narrative and for subjecting it to questions that it resisted in form.
    • If the Chart of Biography in some way looked like progress, this was not true for the Chart of History, nor would it be for a hundred other charts plotted within the same epistemological space. For Priestley the creation of the timeline was a step toward reckoning with the many ways of seeing and representing history.
    • Harry’s Holiday: plot hinges on a young boy’s attempt to hand copy one of Priestley’s charts—a foolish effort which occasions a lecture from his father on the virtues of mechanical reproduction. Many reproductions of his charts, and expansions on such, are seen littered throughout 1800s academic work.